LNAT Section A: Your Guide to Assumptions in Questions
Written by: Matt Amalfitano-Stroud
Some questions in Section A of the LNAT will be asking you about assumptions in the passage, and it’s easy to “assume” that you’ll be able to spot them a mile away. However, these questions can be tougher than you might think, that is unless you go in prepared! Let’s take a look at what you need to know to separate the facts from the assumptions.
WHAT ARE ASSUMPTIONS?
This may seem like an obvious question, but when it comes to the LNAT you’re going to need to know the exact definition and how they are used in writing.
What is an Assumption?
The dictionary definition of an assumption is “a thing that is accepted as true or as certain to happen, without proof”. What does this mean to you?
To us, it could be described as a leap in logic to connect a premise and a conclusion. When creating arguments, two key things you will need are a premise and conclusion, but sometimes these two things alone are not enough. Typically, a well-formed argument will consist of various premises and conclusions that are connected to each other and the main argument by a string of evidence and proof. An assumption is essentially a part of this process that is not connected by any concrete evidence.
Take this excerpt as an example:
“There has been an increase in speeding penalties in my town. Speeding increases the risk of road collisions, meaning the roads in my town have become more dangerous.”
In this case, the writer is assuming that speeding increases the risk of road collisions. There is no evidence provided to suggest that this is true, but the conclusion relies on some form of statement to suggest why the roads are more dangerous. However, this excerpt would have a similar or the same meaning without stating the assumption. Here’s an example of what we mean:
“Many students don’t adequately prepare for the LNAT. Therefore, the average scores for the LNAT are lower.”
This is a much more common type of assumption to look out for in the LNAT specifically. In this case, the assumption is unspoken (or unstated), suggesting that students who do not properly prepare for the LNAT will score lower, thus lowering the average scores for the test (a very reasonable assumption to make!).
That’s an important thing to consider when talking about assumptions, how realistic or reasonable the statement is that is being assumed. An assumption is considered truthful by the author when written, but evidence or even common sense can be used to prove or disprove assumed statements. If we were to have assumed that more unprepared students will increase the average score, this statement would be very difficult to believe without evidence, while assuming that average scores would be lower makes much more sense.
Can Assumptions be Useful?
While it may feel that making assumptions or not providing evidence for your statements would be detrimental to your argument, there is definitely a time and place to assume a fact.
As an example, you will likely find writers making obvious assumptions. Stating something that is obviously true may not feel like an assumption, but in an argument, no statement is 100% true until evidence has been presented to back it up. As an example Obviously, an efficient argument doesn’t need to explain simple facts. Therefore, operating on the assumption that what you’ve stated is true will allow you more time to discuss the point you’re actually trying to make.
Another important use for assumptions is in the implementation of hypotheticals. A hypothetical statement is, of course, not a reality, so there is nothing that can undoubtedly confirm it as fact. Any hypotheticals are inherently built off of the assumption that something has happened or that something is true. A good hypothetical should have evidence that supports its legitimacy as a potential outcome, but it’s impossible to provide solid proof because none will exist, as a hypothetical statement does not exist in reality.
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ASSUMPTIONS IN LNAT SECTION A
Everything we’ve discussed so far will help you greatly when you’re developing your own essay in Section B of the LNAT, but how does all this link into Section A? Let’s find out!
As you should know by now, Section A of the LNAT is all about analysing passages and answering multiple-choice questions. Therefore, you clearly aren’t going to be writing lengthy arguments at this stage in the test. However, the principles of writing required for the LNAT are going to be just as useful here as they will be in Section B.
Section 1 is testing you on your ability to read and analyse another person’s argument and use our deduction skills to answer questions about what they’ve said and what they intended. When it comes to assumptions in passages, you will most often be looking for what the writer hasn’t said.
As we have previously discussed, an assumption is essentially a logical gap between a statement and a conclusion. The passages within the LNAT are written by expert authors, so their use of literary techniques, including assumptions, are of a high standard. These authors know when it’s appropriate to make assumptions for the benefit of their argument, or when concrete evidence is and isn’t required to illustrate their point. It’s your job to pick apart their work and figure out how they have used an assumption to benefit them.
But how can this be done?
Let’s take a look at an example of an assumption being made in an LNAT passage. In a passage about oil prices in America, the following quote can be found:
“As significantly fewer people have an income from work, much less money will be spent in local shops. Instead, 7,000 people paying taxes to the Government will end up seeking unemployment benefits from the Government.”
This seems like a pretty simple premise and conclusion (technically two conclusions); People with less income will spend less money and will seek unemployment benefits”
However, there are two assumptions that can be made from the second sentence in particular.
A) These 7000 people have become unemployed and will not initially find work.
B) The government has unemployment benefits to give.
Both of these are valid to assume in the context of the statement, but there is a key difference between them.
Necessary and Unnecessary Assumptions
A necessary assumption is something that needs to exist for an argument to make sense.
An unnecessary assumption, while not completely irrelevant to the topic, is not required for the argument to make sense.
In this scenario, we need to understand that the 7000 people who are seeking unemployment benefits have become unemployed and will not get a new job immediately afterwards. This is, of course, because an individual is required to be unemployed in order to receive unemployment benefits. An employed person could technically seek unemployment benefits, but this is such an unlikely scenario, and one that would not amount to a significant result so is not worth considering, especially when speaking about 7000 individuals.
The assumption that the government has unemployment benefits to give would be necessary if the statement suggested that these people are receiving unemployment benefits. However, this is not the case. It is possible for a person to seek unemployment benefits, regardless of if the government have any available or not. Therefore, this assumption bears no importance to what the writer has actually stated.
Admittedly, this example in particular is a fairly complex one. Many other LNAT questions will ask about a section of the passage that only has a single relevant assumption to determine.
Perfecting your abilities in recognising assumptions shouldn’t be restricted to answering LNAT questions. We always sing the praises of external reading (because it’s essential for your application!), but it can be an incredibly effective way of developing your recognition abilities.
Once you’re a little bit more confident in your skills, pick up a random piece of critical writing and try to find as many assumptions as you can. Note down anything you can and use them to completely deconstruct the piece. You’ll be doing this in the exam and your course, so why not get a head start in your practice?
EXTRA TIPS FOR LNAT ASSUMPTIONS
There’s even more to keep in mind when looking at LNAT assumptions, so let’s go over a few points that will help you with your practice.
Assumptions or Implications
This is an area that a lot of people get caught up on! You’ll be asked questions about both assumptions and implications in Section A, so you need to understand the difference in order to avoid losing those points.
An implication is defined as “a conclusion that can be drawn that is not explicitly stated”, which immediately brings us to the keyword that differentiates an assumption and implication. An implication is an unstated conclusion that can be assumed by the existing statements. As an example:
“Statistics from the Home Office indeed show that 25% of the prison population are ethnic minorities, and yet they only account for 14% of the UK population.”
The Implication here is that there are a disproportionate number of ethnic minorities in prisons, a conclusion that is not stated by the author but seems relatively clear by the extreme statistics on display.
An assumption, though usually also unstated, is typically used as a connection between a stated premise and conclusion. While the implication that we see here could be used as an assumption in a separate statement, it only acts as an unstated conclusion in this example.
The question will always clearly state whether you are identifying an assumption or implication, so your difficulty may come from the available answers, which often will try to catch you off guard. The best way to get around this is simply to identify which answers are actually conclusions.
Choosing your Answer
Unsurprisingly, this is something you’re going to have to do to score well in the LNAT! The questions in this exam are a bit different to something like a maths or science exam, in that the answers are, in some sense, subjective.
That’s not to say that you’ll be able to argue your choice to the examiner (save your reasoning skills for Section B!). There is still a definitive right answer, but unlike an incorrect solution to a maths problem, the other options in an LNAT question may not be definitively incorrect. It’s the wording of the question that will determine the correct answer.
If you’re looking for an unstated assumption in a paragraph, you should always make sure you carefully read the answers before attempting to answer. You can dissect these answers almost as much as the passage itself, which is something you’re going to need to do to be 100% sure about your answer.
What makes an answer incorrect though? Here are a few of the most common reasons:
- The statement is explicitly stated within the passage.
- The statement contradicts something stated in the passage.
- The statement is not relevant to the question, such as an Unnecessary Assumption.
If you can single out any answers that fall under these categories, then you’ll find the correct answer in no time!
Many LNAT questions will ask you to find the underlying assumption of a passage. This means that the assumption isn’t contained within a single paragraph or links to a specific statement. Instead, the assumption needs to be considered across the whole of the passage.
This sounds a lot harder than finding a specific assumption. In some ways, it may feel like finding a needle in a haystack, as the answer could be anywhere in the passage. But it’s really not as hard as that!
This assumption affects pretty much the whole of the passage, so it must be a fairly general and important point. An assumption that is necessary for the whole of a passage will be referenced to some degree fairly frequently throughout the writing. After all, if the author has written a piece that relies on an underlying assumption, they’re going to have to work hard to justify its use.
After reading through the available answers, scan the passage for premises and conclusions that wouldn’t make sense without an assumed statement. If you find multiple that relate to one of the options in the question, then you may well have found your answer!
Finding the Missing Statement
As we’ve already seen, many assumptions are unstated by the author in their passage. So essentially, you’re going to have to find something that doesn’t exist!
Of course, you’re not going in completely blind as you’ll have your five potential answers. So from there, it’s a matter of reading between the lines and trying to see what sections would require additional clarification were the author to leave nothing down to assumptions. These passages are written expertly, but by removing a few literary rules and techniques you can begin to see where some areas wouldn’t make sense. It’s a lot to do in the time you have available, but if you practice your technique now then it should come naturally by the time you sit the real thing!
This is a very popular point to make for any exam guide, but always read the question properly! Questions that do not cover the entirety of the passage will explicitly state where you will find the assumption (e.g. find the assumption in the second paragraph). This is a super simple way to make sure you don’t waste time going through the whole passage trying to find what you’re looking for.
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LNAT ASSUMPTIONS PRACTICE QUESTIONS
It’s time to take everything you’ve learnt and apply it to some realistic LNAT Questions. Read the passages carefully and use your knowledge of assumptions to answer the questions correctly!
LNAT Passage 1: Black Death
In the Middle Ages, most people tended to form small communities on a feudal manor, which consisted of a village, church, and a castle presided over by a Lord. Peasants typically held some land in the manor and in return, had to provide some services to the Lord. While they could occupy a property, they were not allowed to leave the manor without permission.
The high mortality of the Black Death shocked medieval British society in more ways than could have been predicted at the time. Although historians disagree on the precise mortality rate, a number of estimates put the decline in population size at 50%. Perversely, this might have actually been to the benefit of the peasants that remained.
The decrease in population reduced the supply of labour and, thus, wages rose and peasants were able to demand higher wages. This allowed them to enjoy a higher standard of living. Due to the massive death rate, many vacant land holdings became available when people died without an heir. This transformed the position of peasants, as they could now move to different manors. Due to the labour shortage, the Lords wanted the peasants to stay and were willing to increase wages and improve conditions. For example, some labourers were given a hot meal as opposed to a cold one. However, this increase in wage costs meant that Lords could not farm as much of their demesne and had to change the way in which it was used.
This change in bargaining position shifted the economic balance of power and marked the breakdown of the feudal system. An example can be shown in Great Waltham and High Ester, where 7 in 51 marriages before the Black Death took place without merchet being paid. After the Black Death, though, this increased to 20 out of 46. Accordingly, it is clear that the power of the Lords in the manorial system had weakened and they no longer held ultimate control over their peasants.
Peasants at the bottom of the social hierarchy were marked by a greater individualism. Their labour to the Lord was no longer determined by their ties to the land or by custom but by market forces – i.e. which Lord was offering the best pay. Given the greater availability of land, those who were doing well, such as merchants and clothiers, could also buy it and improve their status. This is remarkably reminiscent of a capitalist society as opposed to a feudal one.
Interestingly, women were valued a lot more and their wages increased. The Black Death’s high mortality meant that much of the workforce was dead and needed to be replaced. However, there was not much of a transformation in society as the general attitudes towards women remained.
It is not a ubiquitous view though that the Black Death caused this change in the balance of power between peasants and the Lords.
The Great Famine had already started the reduction of the population that led to increasing wages. Accordingly, some see the Black Death as an accelerator of social change, rather than an initial cause. Others also question the very basis of the view that the Black Death ‘caused’ the increase in entrepreneurialism among the lower orders in society. In order for a move from feudalism to capitalism to occur, there must surely be a change in attitudes (such as an increase in risk taking) – otherwise, even the death of half the population would not change things. Accordingly, some view the Black Death as merely giving an opportunity for the shift in the balance of power.
LNAT Practice Question 1
Which of the following is a necessary assumption made about the Great Famine?
A) It reduced the population
B) It had an impact on wages
C) It occurred before the Black Death
D) It was more severe than the Black Death
E) It was a bigger cause of the shift in the balance of power
The correct answer is C
C is a necessary assumption since the author points out that the population started decreasing before the Black Death due to the Great Famine. A and B do not relate to the Black Death, so while they could be assumed from the passage, they would be unnecessary as they do not link to the point the writer is making. D and E cannot be assumed as no statements in the passage suggest them to be true.
LNAT Passage 2: The world needs to talk about child euthanasia: Mecry for all?
Adapted from 2014©. David Barrett, The New Scientist
Euthanising an infant is not technically difficult. Intravenous sedatives are used to silence the brain, followed by a pain medication such as morphine. This is often enough to trigger respiratory arrest and death, but if not, neuromuscular blockers are added, and the child dies. The process takes 5 to 10 minutes. Belgium has just become the first country to legislate in favour of child euthanasia at any age. However, there is a partial precedent. In 2005, the Netherlands recognised the Groningen protocol, a set of criteria outlining the circumstances under which ending the life of an infant under the age of 1 is permissible. Under those guidelines – which were written by Verhagen – euthanasia can only be undertaken if an infant’s diagnosis and prognosis are certain and confirmed by an independent doctor, there is evidence of hopeless and unbearable suffering, both parents give their consent, the procedure follows medical standards, and all details are documented. Dutch children aged between 1 and 12 cannot be euthanised under any circumstances, although Verhagen and others are working to change that. While euthanasia remains technically illegal for infants in the Netherlands, doctors are not prosecuted so long as the protocol’s criteria are met.
Opponents argued that this would lead to a slippery slope of infant euthanasia. The opposite happened. Since 2005, there have been only two cases in the Netherlands. Both involved babies with lethal epidermolysis bullosa, a disease of the connective tissues. This decline in euthanasia correlates with an increase in late-term abortions. Previously, most euthanasia cases involved babies born with severe to extreme spina bifida – a congenital disorder in which some of the vertebrae do not fully form. Doctors found that surgery was not possible and that the child would suffer constantly. In 2007, the Netherlands began offering free ultrasound scans at 20 weeks of pregnancy, at which point spina bifida can be detected. Mothers whose babies are diagnosed with the disease can then decide whether to terminate the pregnancy. This is not necessarily the best course for everyone in this situation. Only the most extreme cases of spina bifida are deemed hopeless, and it is impossible for doctors to precisely gauge the severity in utero. Having infant euthanasia as an option allows mothers to be sure that their baby has no chance of survival before ending its life. But, as Verhagen says, in practice most in this situation decide not to take any chances and terminate the pregnancy.
The means of ending a baby’s life are subject to debate. Recently, the line between proactive palliative care – applying pain medications that may hasten death – and euthanasia has become more blurred. In some countries, including the US, food and fluid may be withdrawn in some circumstances. But palliative care practices do not necessarily result in a quick death for a terminally ill infant. Death by dehydration and starvation can take days or weeks and it is impossible to guarantee that the child – even heavily medicated – does not suffer. Moreover, no one doubts that death is the outcome of withholding life-sustaining care and support. Rather than draw out the inevitable, would it not be less cruel to swiftly end that life, alleviating all risk of unnecessary suffering? Belgium and the Netherlands have chosen to face this dilemma directly. Of course, not every country is as progressive, there will always be those who – due to religious or personal beliefs – oppose ending a human life. In the US, for example, reaching a federal consensus on the subject of infant euthanasia seems unlikely. On the other hand, progressive states such as Oregon might someday implement their own laws on it, much as they have for assisted suicide in adults. Whether this will ever come to pass remains to be seen.
As Verhagen wrote in The New England Journal of Medicine, ‘This approach suits our legal and social culture, but it is unclear to what extent it would be transferable to other countries.’ For most parts of the world, a refusal to even discuss the subject dominates. As unpleasant as it is, parents, physicians, hospitals and nations need to confront this issue as a matter of responsibility towards both infants born into hopeless circumstances and their families.
LNAT Practice Question 2
What assumption does the author make in the second paragraph?
A) That late-term abortion has recently become legalised
B) That fathers do not have a say in whether or not a child is to be aborted
C) It is a positive step that infant euthanasia has decreased in frequency
D) Epidermolysis Bullosa will always lead to early death
E) Mothers who terminate a pregnancy without being sure that their foetus’ disease will be fatal are negligent
The correct answer is B.
A is incorrect – the argument relies on the premise that late-term abortions are legal, not that they have recently become legalised. B is correct, as the author simply assumes that mothers have the choice to terminate the pregnancy – this statement relies on the assumption that mothers alone are legally able to make this decision.
C is incorrect – the author suggests that it may be more positive to wait until a child is born to decide whether or not to terminate its life, as there will be certainty that the child has no chance of survival. This would lead to more cases of infant euthanasia, but the reason they have increased in frequency is development in ultrasound scans such that spina bifida can be detected before birth.
D is explicitly stated in the description of the illness as ‘lethal’.
E is a difficult one – the author may be implying this, by stating that it is ‘not necessarily the best course of action’, or indeed the reader might have inferred it, but it is not quite correct to state that the author assumed it in his argument – an assumption is an assertion of a fact or set on facts upon which an argument is based. This is not quite the case here.
LNAT Passage 3: Age Imbalance
There are statistics which suggest that in many of the world’s least developed countries, close to half the population are under the age of 20. Such countries have not experienced the same decrease in birth rates that we have seen in the more developed West. One reason may be that less developed countries depend on farming for food and wealth. More children mean more potential farm workers and more food for everyone (and more money). In less developed countries, generally, children are less likely to survive into adulthood (disease, etc.). So having more children is a way of ensuring that a parent has, at least, some children to take care of them in their old age. Lastly, people may not always have access to birth control in less developed countries. So although here in the UK we can drive down to the pharmacy for condoms, people in rural India do not have that option. Consequently, the demographics here in the West are quite different. In fact, in the UK, more than 20% of the population are over the age of 75 – a proportion which in itself is not sustainable. 10 million people in the UK are over 65 years old. The latest projections are for 5½ million more elderly people in 20 years’ time and the number will have nearly doubled to around 19 million by 2050. Within this total, the number of very old people grows even faster. There are currently three million people aged more than 80 years and this is projected to almost double by 2030 and reach eight million by 2050. France finds itself in a similar position.
In countries such as Japan, the percentage of the population aged over 75 is set to hit almost 30%. This is concerning because governments are likely to struggle to pay for their ageing populations. Much of today’s public spending on benefits is focused on elderly people. 65% of Department for Work and Pensions benefit expenditure goes to those over working age, equivalent to £100 billion in 2010/11 or one-seventh of public expenditure. According to a parliament publication, ‘continuing to provide state benefits and pensions at today’s average would mean additional spending of £10 billion a year for every additional one million people over working age’. As a direct result of this issue, those in the workforce will have to retire much later. It may also be that pensions are cut, along with social care. There is serious concern that the ageing population could lead to a reduction in government support for care homes.
Most alarmingly, in countries such as Niger, there will simply not be enough money to fund education for all these young people. It is widely accepted that education is the most efficient route for development and for Niger, which routinely finds itself in the bottom 10% of the world’s countries on development indexes, education of its youth could make a huge difference. But the surge in births means this simply will not be possible. Other issues preventing development may include the relative lack of healthcare and climate change.
LNAT Practice Question 3
What is the unstated assumption in the last paragraph?
A) Education leads to development
B) Climate change is more important than healthcare
C) Niger is very undeveloped
D) The West should help Niger
E) Development is a good thing in itself
The correct answer is E.
A and C are stated explicitly in the passage so cannot be unstated assumptions. D and E are not relevant at all. The paragraph discusses the limits on development as being problems in themselves, meaning E is the right answer.
LNAT Passage 4: Cars
We live in a world of technological change and it seems that nothing is immune from it. Our phones, computers, kitchens, gardens and cars are all undergoing significant change. If businesses want to keep the custom of consumers, they must engage in technological change and find new, innovative ways to improve their products.
Ever since the introduction of the car over 100 years ago, one thing has remained constant: a human has always driven the car. While the look, feel and efficiencies of cars have improved enormously, cars have always required a human to drive them. Indeed, the law requires humans to be in control of cars. However, all of this is going to change.
Car companies – and some traditionally non-car companies – have been developing ‘driverless cars’ at a monumental rate. Famously, Top Gear presenter Jeremy Clarkson tried an autonomous BMW around their race track in 2011. While driving on a track is not comparable to driving on busy roads, there have been significant developments since. Google, for instance, has been testing autonomous cars on open roads in California. A key feature of autonomous vehicles is that they are capable of sensing their environment without human input.
Driverless cars are expected by industry experts to be the norm within 20 years. According to the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders, the market for autonomous car technology is expected to contribute £51 billion to the UK economy and over 300,000 jobs. A lot needs to happen in the meantime, though. Car companies need to rigorously test their cars on open roads and the public need to be convinced of their utility. Testing on open roads will allow companies to develop the accuracy and safety of the technology used. Indeed, such testing is essential to develop autonomous cars – how else can we be sure that they will be safe in the real world?
The current law requires a human to be in control of a car. However, governments have issued special dispensations to car companies wanting to test autonomous cars on public roads. The UK Government allow autonomous vehicles to be tested as long as a driver is ready to take over in the case of a system fault. The Government has also announced that 40 miles of road in Coventry is to be equipped with technology to aid autonomous vehicles. The significance of the Government’s support is that it will accelerate the development of autonomous cars and will encourage worldwide car companies to set up permanent research facilities in the UK to test autonomous cars. If the UK can become a world leader in autonomous vehicles, the industry may well contribute a lot more than the expected £50 billion to the UK economy. However, not everyone is convinced of the success of the driverless car. The CEO of Porsche, a luxury car company, recently dismissed the use of driverless cars, saying that his cars are meant to be driven. That may well be correct for the luxury car market – people want to drive the cars they spend £100,000+ on. However, it does not follow that it is the same for the rest of the car market. People will see that the benefits of autonomous cars outweigh the use of traditional cars. Firstly, autonomous cars are expected to be safer than traditional cars. For instance, a computer system can react much faster than a human to a dangerous situation. Secondly, the driver becomes a passenger and can do something else with his time – the age old saying that time is money still rings true today. This alone will encourage drivers to buy driverless cars. While people may find driverless cars strange initially, they will get used to them. The first desktop computer seemed strange but it is now virtually ubiquitous. So peculiarity should actually be an incentive to development.
LNAT Practice Question 4
What is the underlying assumption that the author made in using the first desktop computer analogy?
A) That people will adapt to new things
B) People find new things strange
C) Desktop computers are strange
D) The public should adapt to the driverless car
E) Peculiarity should actually be an incentive to development
The correct answer is A
The assumption made is that people adapt to new things. None of the other options are suggested throughout the passage, so cannot be classed as assumptions.
That’s just a taste of what you should expect from quality practice questions!
What to try even more free practice questions for LNAT Section 1? Check out our Definitive Guide to LNAT Section A for questions that cover everything you can expect!
We’ve gone through a lot here for such a specific topic! But when you’re taking the LNAT, and even more so when you’re studying law, being able to pick out the smallest details of a written piece and find the author’s unstated thoughts is super important for you. It’s a skill that you’ll be able to apply for years to come, so getting ahead of it now is a great idea (remember to dedicate some time for it in your 6-Month Preparation Plan!). If you want to learn more about the whole of the LNAT, check out our Definitive LNAT Guide now!
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